There is a wide variety of applications where computer vision can improve the safety, power management or resources exploitation in the context of railway transport:
Speed control: the speed of a train can be measured accurately with image processing techniques, overcoming drawbacks of other sensors (e.g. encoders) that fail on slippery surfaces. This information can be used to feedback the power traction of the train for energy optimization at start and stop maneouvres.
Object detection & recognition: the train can be equipped with cameras in order to detect and identify objects in the railways. Also such systems can be placed in fixed locations along the railway, being the detection information transmitted to a management control centre in order to generate the according alarms.
Railway inspection: image analysis with laser projection can be used to inspect the status (i.e. detect wear or cracks) of railways by means of triangulation.